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Despite the hierarchical power structures in the military and government, as they reach more senior levels, leaders routinely operate in peer-to-peer teams. These environments require the ability to negotiate complex group dynamics?a skill which often goes undeveloped in typical hierarchies. Groups that succeed over time have three things in common: (1) they meet their performance goals, (2) their
In 2017, it was a challenge to assess the future of global trade. It was an open question whether the U.S. financial crisis and the recession that it triggered would mark a turning point for the liberal post-World War II world order. If one looked toward Europe, China, Latin America, and Japan, there was a flurry of activity. New trade agreements were being completed and pursued. In Washington, DC
This note provides a few basic facts about the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO). We also investigate why we need those institutions from an economic perspective. In other words, we seek to understand what problems the GATT/WTO solve, and why without them the trade liberalizations that they seek would not emerge.
Sonvilier Pen is an elite manufacturer of high-quality ballpoint and fountain pens, producing over three million units annually. Six months earlier, the COO for Sonvilier Pen had gotten a proposal to outsource two pen components to Li Manufacturing, a specialist in the molding and production of intricate metals, located in southeastern China. The proposal was intriguing, but there were a number of
UPLiFT, a microfinance NGO in the Philippines that provided microfinance and social services for the urban poor, was deciding whether to try to attain fast growth (tripling its clients in just a few years) or concentrate on serving the community in the philanthropic way it always had. The case presents UPLiFT's mission and operations, as well as the opportunities and challenges it faced in 2014.
This note provides context regarding financial inclusion in the Philippines. It discusses the nature of poverty in the country; provides details on the financial system, especially the financial organizations that serve the poor; and presents some initiatives to broaden access to finance.
The general manager of Island Imprints must decide whether to go ahead with a deal to repurchase the company he founded but had to sell several years earlier when it encountered financial difficulty. A tentative bank-financed SBA-guaranteed deal has been negotiated, which must be considered.
This case invites students to assess the financial performance of FedEx Corp. and United Parcel Service, Inc., two firms that have long competed for dominance in the overnight delivery industry. The case is designed to introduce students to corporate value creation and its sources. It requires no numerical computations; instead, it asks the student to interpret the results and to reflect upon the
This is a Russian translation of the 2012 version of UVA-S-0194. Suitable for MBA, Executive MBA, GEMBA, and executive education programs, this case uses CEMEX, a global cement producer based in Mexico, to set the stage for unfolding an analysis of a growth through acquisition strategy. It offers a discussion about the firm's overall strategy to acquire on a global scale instead of growing organic
This is the Russian translation of the August 2005 version of UVA-QA-0657. The manager of a paper plant must decide whether to buy a new electrode boiler to replace a natural gas boiler. The challenge is to cut through complexities, such as uncertainty in boiler efficiency, energy prices, financing alternatives, and supplier/competitor relationships to arrive at a first-cut analysis and decision.
This is a Spanish translation of the November 5, 2010 version of UVA-1175. This case provides an introductory exercise for estimating the cost of capital (cost of equity, weighted average cost of capital) for a firm contemplating a large increase in debt. Students are asked to compare the debt policy of MCI Communications with that of five other leading telecommunications companies to find MCI's o
This is a Spanish translation of the September 3, 2009 version of UVA-F-1575. As 2007 drew to a close, Panera Bread Company faced a new challenge. To date, it had relied on retained earnings and minor equity infusions to finance operations. But a decline in margins would limit future financing from internally generated funds. Complicating matters was the fact that its stock price was at historic l
Olaf Tryggvason, owner of a fleet of fishing ships in a small northern Norwegian town, has been offered and has accepted a reality television deal about the fleet to create a show along the lines of "The Deadliest Catch" and "Big Shrimpin'." He now has to recommend which ships and kapteiner (skippers or captains) in his fleet should be the stars of the show. He also has to consider the various dan
This interactive marketing simulation emulates the product design process at Capital One Financial Corporation. The firm has a variety of different products (12 versions of a credit card) and detailed information (summarized by a single credit score) on several thousand potential customers. The question at hand is which product(s) should be offered through direct mail to which customers. Student t
As part of a biennial supplier review, Jennifer Schramm, a purchasing manager in the cocoa and chocolate division at Cardinal Foods, had been considering several different cocoa cooperatives. She wanted to (1) source high-quality cocoa in the proper particle sizes, (2) source cocoa from environmentally and socially conscious producers, (3) keep the cost of cocoa sourcing as low as possible, and (4
This note summarizes some important learnings from the study of behavioral economics of which service organizations should be aware in order to enhance customers' emotional experiences and help direct their decision making?in an ethical manner.
The president of the Belgian consumer goods subsidiary had made a conscious effort to engage his direct reports in ways that he felt aligned with their personalities. He had noticed some modest changes in the weekly management team meetings?all team members had begun taking advantage of opportunities to contribute to the deliberations, posing questions, and raising some minor concerns. Now a repla
The president of the Belgian consumer goods subsidiary of a large American conglomerate thought he had inherited a loyal, lean, efficient, and capable management team to help him accelerate the growth and profitability of the decades-old, moderately successful subsidiary. Yet after six months in his current position, not much had improved. Financial performance had not regressed?just not expanded
In this case a business school student, Kate Maxwell, must decide whether to accept a job offer in wealth management or pursue her dream of building her own company around healthy gummy snacks for children. Because Maxwell's gummies rely on high-quality, fresh ingredients that are more expensive than those used in similar gummy snacks, they would have to carry a hefty price premium in the marketpl